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Implementation of Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples

Product Description


Implementation of Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples (PAWS) in TensorFlow (2.4.1).

PAWS introduces a simple way to combine a very small fraction of labeled data with a comparatively larger corpus of unlabeled data during pre-training. With its approach, it sets the state-of-the-art in semi-supervised learning (as of May 2021) beating methods like SimCLRV2, Meta Pseudo Labels that too with fewer parameters and a smaller pre-training schedule. For details, I recommend checking out the original paper as well as this blog post by the authors.

This repository implements and includes all the major bits proposed in PAWS in TensorFlow. The only major difference is that the pre-training and subsequent fine-tuning weren't run for the original number of epochs (600 and 30 respectively) to save compute. I have reused the utility components for PAWS loss from the original implementation.

Dataset ⌗

The current code works with CIFAR10 and uses 4000 labeled samples (8%) during pre-training (along with the unlabeled samples).

Features ✨

  • [x] Multi-crop augmentation strategy (originally introduced in SwAV)
  • [x] Class stratified sampler (common in few-shot classification problems)
  • [x] WarmUpCosine learning rate schedule (which is typical for self-supervised and semi-supervised pre-training)
  • [x] LARS optimizer (comes from TensorFlow Model Garden)

The trunk portion (all, except the last classification layer) of a WideResNet-28-2 is used inside the encoder for CIFAR10. All the experimental configurations were followed from the Appendix C of the paper.

Setup and code structure 💻

A GCP VM (n1-standard-8) with a single V100 GPU was used for executing the code.

  • runs the pre-training as introduced in PAWS.
  • runs the fine-tuning part as suggested in Appendix C. Note that this is only required for CIFAR10.
  • runs the soft nearest neighbor classification on CIFAR10 test set.

Pre-training and fine-tuning total take 1.4 hours to complete. All the logs are available in misc/logs.txt. Additionally, the indices that were used to sample the labeled examples from the CIFAR10 training set are available here.

Results 📊


PAWS minimizes the cross-entropy loss (as well as maximizes mean-entropy) during pre-training. This is what the training plot indicates too:

To evaluate the effectivity of the pre-training, PAWS performs soft nearest neighbor classification to report the top-1 accuracy score on a given test set.

Top-1 Accuracy

This repository gets to 73.46% top-1 accuracy on the CIFAR10 test set. Again, note that I only pre-trained for 50 epochs (as opposed to 600) and fine-tuned for 10 epochs (as opposed to 30). With the original schedule this score should be around 96.0%.

In the following PCA projection plot, we see that the embeddings of images (computed after fine-tuning) of PAWS are starting to be well separated:

Notebooks 📘

There are two Colab Notebooks:

Misc ⺟

  • Model weights are available here for reproducibility.
  • With mixed-precision training, the performance can further be improved. I am open to accepting contributions that would implement mixed-precision training in the current code.


  • Huge amount of thanks to Mahmoud Assran (first author of PAWS) for patiently resolving my doubts.
  • ML-GDE program for providing GCP credit support.

Paper Citation

      title={Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples}, 
      author={Mahmoud Assran and Mathilde Caron and Ishan Misra and Piotr Bojanowski and Armand Joulin and Nicolas Ballas and Michael Rabbat},

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By: Xpress AI

Published: 2021-10-05